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Where do popular browsers and Chat applications store their passwords

Posted by brainfoldb4u on March 16, 2010

I got this question raised in an interview with Google “Where do browsers and popular messengers store their password” I kind of wondering for an answer to this questions. After some search i found answers for those question which i thought of sharing it with you all.

Fact is major browsers and applications tend to store the password in a way to hide/prevent you from altering it. Even by knowing the location its hard to move it from one machine to another.

Google Chrome:

Google chrome browser stores the password in windows machine at [Windows Profile]\Local Settings\Application Data\Google\Chrome\User Data\Default\Web Data.

Google Chrome uses SQLite as the storage space for passwords and other web page related critical data’s. Google done a appreciate work by extracting windows specifif code from the cross-platform stuff. The only Windows specific code here is the encryption function, which can easily be ported by creating a different Encryptor object for each OS. The important piece here is CryptProtectData, which is a Windows API function for encrypting data. Data encrypted with this function is pretty solid. It can only be decrypted on the same machine and by the same user that encrypted it in the first place

For more technical explanation click here :  how Google chrome stores password

Mozilla Firefox

The passwords are stored in one of the following filenames: signons.txt, signons2.txt, and signons3.txt (depends on Firefox version) These password files are located inside the profile folder of Firefox, in [Windows Profile]\Application Data\Mozilla\Firefox\Profiles\[Profile Name] Also, key3.db, located in the same folder, is used for encryption/decription of the passwords.

Firefox is much better than Internet Explorer in terms of managing “remembered” logins. In Internet Explorer, there is no built-in feature where you can manage or view your saved login information. That’s why you need third party tools to reveal the passwords hidden under asterisks. As for Firefox, you can access remembered passwords with a few clicks.

To view your remembered passwords in Firefox browser, go to Tools, and click on Options. Go to Security tab and click on the Show Passwords button. A remember password dialog box will appear. Click on the Show Passwords button again and a new column with password will appear.

Upon clicking the saved password location (tools-options-security-saved passwords), you won’t need any tools to reveal the hidden passwords under asterisks. It’s a feature that’s included in Firefox browser. So any one who has access to your work station can typically spy into your password by going around to security tab in the options location.
One useful tool that worth sharing about Firefox browser password management  is “Firepassword” . FirePassword is the console tool designed to decrypt the username and password list from Firefox sign-on database. Firefox records the login details such as username and password for every website authorized by the user and stores them in the sign-on database file in encrypted format.  It works on similar line as Firefox’s built-in password manager but it can be used as offline tool to get the username/password information without running the Firefox. It is DOS based and the manual says that FirePassword requires only 3 files which is key3.db, cert8.db and signons.txt. This 3 files can be found in Firefox profile directory.

All you need to do is place the 3 files together with FirePassword and run FirePassword.exe. Weirdly, I am able to decrypt all my username and password by copying ONLY the signons.txt file. Looks like it’s not necessary to include the other 2 files.

For detailed technical explanation click here

Internet Explorer > 7.0 (hope you all have updated from version 6.0):

  • Auto complete passwords are stored under Registry under HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\IntelliForms\Storage2.
  • Documents and Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Credentials is the credential file location used to save  HTTP authentication passwords

An automatic tool that used to retrieve IE password is IE PassView can be used to recover these passwords

Opera: The passwords are stored in wand.dat filename, located under [Windows Profile]\Application Data\Opera\Opera\profile

Safari: Safari stores password data via Keychain. /Applications/Utilities/Keychain Access (on Mac)

On PC, All that data is stored in plist files at: C:\Documents and Settings\(UserName)\Application Data\Apple Computer\Safari

I believe it is FormValues.plist

ThunderBird: The password file is located under [Windows Profile]\Application Data\Thunderbird\Profiles\[Profile Name] You should search a filename with .s extension.

Google Talk: All account settings, including the encrypted passwords, are stored in the Registry under HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Google\Google Talk\Accounts\[Account Name]

MSN Messenger version 7.x: The passwords are stored under HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\IdentityCRL\Creds\[Account Name]

Windows Live Messenger version 8.x/9.x: The passwords are stored in the Credentials file, with entry name begins with “WindowsLive:name=”. These passwords can be recovered by both Network Password Recovery and MessenPass utilities.

Yahoo Messenger 7.5 or later: The password is stored in the Registry, under HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Yahoo\Pager – “ETS” value. The value stored in “ETS” value cannot be recovered back to the original password

Posted in Auditing, Browser Security, Google, Security tools, vulnerability assessment | Tagged: | 1 Comment »

Router audit check list-ISO 27001

Posted by brainfoldb4u on March 15, 2010

Routers are increasingly an enterprises first and continued line of defense. As Router become more complex, streamlining the audit process, and ensuring risks and clutter are not injected into the rule base becomes an significant task. Below is the audit check list from ISO 27001 for auditing routers. ISO 27001 audit program covers the following area.

Router Policy

Disable Unneeded Services

Password Encryption

Authentication Settings

Administrator Authentication

Management Access

Route Protocol Security

Configuration Maintenance

Router Change Management

Router Redundancy

Log monitoring and Incident Handling

Security Updates


ISO27k_router_security_audit_checklist (1)

Posted in Auditing, vulnerability assessment | Tagged: | Leave a Comment »

Netwox graphical front end Network tool

Posted by brainfoldb4u on March 15, 2010


Netwox is an useful tool for those who are in profession of securing network security. Its not exactly an exploit engine but a massive suite of tools, 223 that gives you the ability to to carry out a number of services including enumeration, spoofing, brute forcing and also comes with a number of pre-built udp/ tcp clients/ servers etc.

Toolbox netwox helps to find and solve network problems :
– sniff, spoof
– clients, servers
– scan, ping, traceroute
– etc.

Tools in version 5.38.0:

1 : Display network configuration

2 : Display debugging information

3 : Display information about an IP address or a hostname

4 : Display information about an Ethernet address

5 : Obtain Ethernet addresses of computers in an IP list

6 : Display how to reach an IP address

7 : Sniff

8 : Sniff and display open ports

9 : Sniff and display Ethernet addresses

10 : Sniff and display network statistics

11 : Sniff and verify checksums

12 : Display which values to use for netwox parameters

13 : Obtain DLT type for sniff and spoof for each device

14 : Spoof a record

15 : Display content of a record

16 : Convert a record

17 : Recompute checksums of packets in a record

18 : Reassemble IP packets of a record, and reorder TCP flow

19 : Extract a range of packets from a record

20 : Search for strings in packets from a record

21 : Convert a number

22 : Convert a string

23 : Display ASCII table

24 : Convert IP addresses ranges

25 : Test if a directory is secure

26 : Dump a file

27 : Compute MD5 of a file

28 : Convert a binary file to readable and editable file

29 : Convert a readable and editable file to a binary file

30 : Convert a file from unix to dos

31 : Convert a file from dos to unix

32 : Spoof Ethernet packet

33 : Spoof EthernetArp packet

34 : Spoof EthernetIp4 packet

35 : Spoof EthernetIp4Udp packet

36 : Spoof EthernetIp4Tcp packet

37 : Spoof EthernetIp4Icmp4 packet

38 : Spoof Ip4 packet

39 : Spoof Ip4Udp packet

40 : Spoof Ip4Tcp packet

41 : Spoof Ip4Icmp4 packet

42 : Spoof of packet samples : fragment

43 : Spoof of packet samples : fragment, ip4opt:noop

44 : Spoof of packet samples : fragment, ip4opt:rr

45 : Spoof of packet samples : fragment, ip4opt:lsrr

46 : Spoof of packet samples : fragment, ip4opt:ts

47 : Spoof of packet samples : fragment, ip4opt:ipts

48 : Spoof of packet samples : fragment, ip4opt:ippts

49 : Ping ICMP

50 : Ping ICMP (EthIP spoof)

51 : Ping TCP

52 : Ping TCP (EthIp spoof)

53 : Ping UDP

54 : Ping UDP (EthIp spoof)

55 : Ping ARP

56 : Ping ARP (EthIp spoof)

57 : Traceroute ICMP

58 : Traceroute ICMP (EthIP spoof)

59 : Traceroute TCP

60 : Traceroute TCP (EthIp spoof)

61 : Traceroute UDP

62 : Traceroute UDP (EthIp spoof)

63 : Traceroute on a specified IP protocol

64 : Traceroute on a specified IP protocol (EthIp spoof)

65 : Scan ICMP

66 : Scan ICMP (EthIP spoof)

67 : Scan TCP

68 : Scan TCP (EthIp spoof)

69 : Scan UDP

70 : Scan UDP (EthIp spoof)

71 : Scan ARP

72 : Scan ARP (EthIp spoof)

73 : Simulate presence of a/several computer/s (arp and ping)

74 : Flood a host with random fragments

75 : Fill table of a switch using a flood of Ethernet packets

76 : Synflood

77 : Check if seqnum are predictible

78 : Reset every TCP packet

79 : Acknowledge every TCP SYN

80 : Periodically send ARP replies

81 : Send an ICMP4 timestamp

82 : Sniff and send ICMP4/ICMP6 destination unreachable

83 : Sniff and send ICMP4/ICMP6 time exceeded

84 : Sniff and send ICMP4/ICMP6 parameter problem

85 : Sniff and send ICMP4 source quench

86 : Sniff and send ICMP4/ICMP6 redirect

87 : TCP client

88 : UDP client

89 : TCP server

90 : UDP server

91 : TCP server multiclients

92 : UDP server multiclients

93 : TCP remote administration server

94 : TCP remote administration client (exec)

95 : TCP remote administration client (get file)

96 : TCP remote administration client (put file)

97 : SYSLOG client

98 : Flood a host with syslog messages

99 : TELNET client

100 : TELNET client executing one or several commands

101 : Brute force telnet client

102 : Query a DNS server

103 : Obtain version of a Bind DNS server

104 : DNS server always answering same values

105 : Sniff and send DNS answers

106 : Send an email

107 : Post a newsgroup message

108 : List newsgroups available on a server

109 : Download one, or more, newsgroup messages

110 : Ethernet bridge limiting flow

111 : FTP listing a directory

112 : FTP client : get a file

113 : FTP client : put a file

114 : FTP client : del a file

115 : FTP client : get a directory recursively

116 : FTP client : put a directory recursively

117 : FTP client : del a directory recursively

118 : HTTP GET



121 : HTTP PUT




125 : HTTP server

126 : HTTP remote administration server

127 : Cypher/decypher a file using a xor

128 : Split a file in smaller chunks

129 : Reassemble chunks of a file

130 : Brute force ftp client

131 : Brute force http client (site password)

132 : Brute force http client (proxy password)

133 : Convert an url/uri

134 : Obtain urls/uris in a HMTL file

135 : Convert urls/uris in a HMTL file to absolute urls

136 : Web download (http://… or ftp://…)

137 : Create a sample configuration file for tool 138

138 : Web spider (use configuration file created by tool 137)

139 : Web spider on command line (fully recursive)

140 : Spoof EthernetIp6 packet

141 : Spoof EthernetIp6Udp packet

142 : Spoof EthernetIp6Tcp packet

143 : Spoof EthernetIp6Icmp6 packet

144 : Spoof Ip6 packet

145 : Spoof Ip6Udp packet

146 : Spoof Ip6Tcp packet

147 : Spoof Ip6Icmp6 packet

148 : Ping ICMP6 Neighbor Discovery

149 : Ping ICMP6 Neighbor Discovery (EthIp spoof)

150 : Scan ICMP6 Neighbor Discovery

151 : Scan ICMP6 Neighbor Discovery (EthIp spoof)

152 : Interactive IRC client

153 : IRC client listing channels

154 : IRC client listening on a channel

155 : Network performance measurement : TCP server

156 : Network performance measurement : TCP client

157 : Network performance measurement : UDP server

158 : Network performance measurement : UDP client

159 : SNMP Get

160 : SNMP Walk

161 : SNMP Trap

162 : SNMP Trap2

163 : SNMP Inform

164 : SNMP Set

165 : TFTP client : get a file

166 : TFTP client : put a file

167 : TFTP server

168 : FTP server

169 : Display simple network configuration easy to parse

170 : TELNET server

171 : DHCP client

172 : List articles range of a newsgroup

173 : Download overview of one, or more, newsgroup messages

174 : FTP client : get a file and check its MD5

175 : Web download (http://… or ftp://…) and check its MD5

176 : TFTP client : get a file and check its MD5

177 : Check if a SMTP server is up

178 : Check if an IRC server is up

179 : DHCP client requesting an INFORM

180 : SNTP client obtaining time

181 : SNTP server

182 : Obtain size of a web file (http://… or ftp://…)

183 : TCP relay

184 : UDP relay

185 : TCP multiclient relay

186 : Millisecond sleep

187 : Display date and time

188 : SYSLOG server

189 : SMTP server

190 : Make coffee

191 : Generate a password (English, French, Spanish)

192 : Spoof of packet samples : fragment, ip4opt:ssrr

193 : IDENT client requesting info about an open session

194 : IDENT client creating a session and requesting its info

195 : IDENT server

196 : WHOIS client

197 : WHOIS client guessing server

198 : SMB/CIFS client: list shares

199 : SMB/CIFS client: create a directory

200 : SMB/CIFS client: delete a directory

201 : SMB/CIFS client: rename a directory

202 : SMB/CIFS client: list contents of a directory

203 : SMB/CIFS client: delete a file

204 : SMB/CIFS client: rename a file

205 : SMB/CIFS client: get a file

206 : SMB/CIFS client: put a file

207 : SMB/CIFS client: recursively get a directory

208 : SMB/CIFS client: recursively put a directory

209 : SMB/CIFS client: recursively delete a directory

210 : Web spider on command line (stay in same directory)

211 : Web spider : converts a local downloaded filename to its original url

212 : Web spider : converts an url to its local downloaded filename

213 : Display a list of IP addresses

214 : Traceroute discovery: graph of network topology

215 : Traceroute discovery (EthIp spoof)

216 : Beep

217 : SMB/CIFS server

218 : Netwox internal validation suite

219 : Compute cryptographic hash of a file (md5, sha, etc.)

220 : Convert a binary file to a base64 encoded file

221 : Convert a base64 encoded file to a binary file

222 : In a HMTL file, suppress links pointing to local urls

223 : Forward an email

Obviously from this list, just about everything is covered and netwox is extremely useful. It can be used in either command line mode or gui utilising netwag.

Netwag is a graphical front end for netwox. It permits to easily :

– search tools proposed in netwox

– construct command line

– run tools

– keep an history of commands


To utilise both command-line and gui versions the following needs to be installed:

  • WinPcap
  • Activestate tcl
  • netwox
  • netwag

Netwag requires that the netwag535.tcl script be amended and the line:

set netwag_glo_bin_netwox “netwox535”  be altered to the location that the netwox535 executable is located.

Note: – It may be easier to unzip netwox directly into the netwag directory to save any alteration.

Click here to download Netwox

Click here to download Netwag



D:\Documents and Settings\hacker\Desktop\netwox-5.35.0-bin_windows>netwox535.exe

Netwox toolbox version 5.35.0. Netwib library version 5.35.0.

######################## MAIN MENU #########################

0 – leave netwox

3 – search tools

4 – display help of one tool

5 – run a tool selecting parameters on command line

6 – run a tool selecting parameters from keyboard

a + information

b + network protocol

c + application protocol

d + sniff (capture network packets)

e + spoof (create and send packets)

f + record (file containing captured packets)

g + client

h + server

i + ping (check if a computer if reachable)

j + traceroute (obtain list of gateways)

k + scan (computer and port discovery)

l + network audit

m + brute force (check if passwords are weak)

n + remote administration

o + tools not related to network

Select a node (key in 03456abcdefghijklmno): 5

Select tool number (between 1 and 222): 1

################## running tool number 1 ###################

Title: Display network configuration


| This tool displays network configuration: |

| – the list of devices/interfaces: |

| + nu: device number |

| + dev: easy device name |

| + eth_hw: Ethernet address or hardware type (if not Ethernet) |

| + mtu: MTU (maximum size of packets) |

| + real_dev: real device name |

| – the list of IP addresses: |

| + nu: device number of device associated to this address |

| + ip: IP address |

| + netmask: network mask |

| + ppp: if true(1), this address is a Point To Point |

| + ppp_with: if ppp, this is the address of remote endpoint |

| – the IP4 ARP cache or IP6 neighbor (this contains Ethernet |

| addresses for other computers) |

| + nu: device number of device associated to this entry |

| + eth: Ethernet address of computer |

| + ip: IP address of computer |

| – the routes |

| + nu: device number of device associated to this entry |

| + destination/netmask: destination addresses |

| + source: source IP address, or local for a local route |

| + gateway: gateway (first router) to use |

| + metric: metric of route |

| |

| Parameter –device ask to display devices list. |

| Parameter –ip ask to display ip list. |

| Parameter –arpcache ask to display ARP cache and neighbors. |

| Parameter –routes ask to display routes list. |

| If no Parameter is set, they are all displayed. |

| |

| This tool may need to be run with admin privilege in order to obtain |

| full network configuration. |


Synonyms: address, arp, device, gateway, ifconfig, interface, ipconfig, mac, nei

ghbor, netmask, route, show

Usage: netwox 1 [-d|+d] [-i|+i] [-a|+a] [-r|+r]


-d|–devices|+d|–no-devices display devices

-i|–ip|+i|–no-ip display ip addresses

-a|–arpcache|+a|–no-arpcache display arp cache and neighbors

-r|–routes|+r|–no-routes display routes

Example: netwox 1

Enter optional tool parameters and press Return key.

netwox 1 -d -i -a -r

nu dev ethernet_hwtype mtu real_device_name

1 Lo0 loopback 1520 Loopback

2 Unk0 unknown 0 \Device\NPF_GenericDialupAdapter

3 Eth0 00:15:C5:CJ:C3:BJ 1500 \Device\NPF_{720B03E4-B057-444E-8D93-B321DE296D


nu ip /netmask ppp point_to_point_with

1 / 0

3 / 0

nu ethernet ip

3 00:15:C5:CF:C3:BC

nu destination /netmask source gateway metric

1 / local 0

3 / local 0

3 / 0

1 / 0

Command returned 0 (OK)

Press ‘r’ or ‘k’ to run again this tool, or any other key to continue

I don’t know about you but that seems a little like hard work just to get a small bit of host information returned and that’s from a simple tool that is available in the suite. I would recommend using Netwag to aid the use of this suite.

Posted in Auditing, Security tools, vulnerability assessment | Tagged: | Leave a Comment »

Open source encryption tools

Posted by brainfoldb4u on January 4, 2010

Failing to secure your data can result in some potentially costly and time consuming processes to recover and re-secure what was lost. It’s worth the time up front to do what you can to ensure your personal data and information stays relatively secure and at least poses some challenge to those who’d like to access it. As an added incentive, many times this can be done for virtually no up front investment on your part. Here are a few free encryption tools that you can use to secure your important info.

TrueCrypt: True crypt is an excellent open source disk encryption tool. Easy to encrypt/decrypt any file on the file as needed without user intervention beyond entering their pass-phrase initially.With TrueCrypt, you get the functionality to encrypt an entire partition of your hard drive if you so wish. Once encrypted, you can then store and access files on the partition like you would any other part of your computer. The best part? The encrypted files aren’t marked so there’s no way for an intruder to tell what’s sensitive info right off the bat.

GNU Privacy Guard: This open source encryption tool offers a free way to get public key encryption. With this, you can encrypt any emails you send out that you want to keep private and secure, with the passwords for access known only to you and your recipient. GnuPG is the complete and free implementation of the OpenPGP standard. GnuPG allows to encrypt and sign your data and communication, features a versatile key managment system as well as access modules for all kind of public key directories. GnuPG, also known as GPG, is a command line tool with features for easy integration with other applications. A wealth of applications and libraries are available. Version 2 of GnuPG also provides support for S/MIME.

LockNote: Using AES 256, this program encrypts your documents. It can be useful for securing business information and sensitive communications. The recipient of the document must have a password to be able to decrypt the information. You can type any text you want, e.g your bank account information, website passwords, social security number etc. and then simply close LockNote, at which time you will be prompted to set a password. Subsequent access to LockNote requires the correct password. The program is portable and does not require an installation. You can simply copy the locked file to a USB stick, iPod or other portable device (or send it by email) and unlock it on any PC. The idea behind LockNote is not to provide a full featured data storage, but a simple, secure and portable way to store any kind of text information. If you want to organize your data, you can create multiple copies of LockNote and rename them to identify the data they contain (e.g Personal.exe, Bank.exe).

S-Tools: If you’re interested in steganographics, give this tool a try. It hides your encrypted files in GIF or WAV files and allows you to easily compress and send them as well. You open up a copy of S-Tools and drag pictures and sounds across to it. To hide files you just drag them over open sound/picture windows. You can hide multiple files in one sound/picture and your data is compressed before being encrypted then hidden. Multi-threaded operation means that you can have many hide/reveal operations going simultaneously without fear of them interferring with you or holding up your work. You can even close the original picture/sound with no ill effects to ongoing threads. Encryption services come courtesy of “cryptlib” by Peter Gutmann (and others).

Cryptainer LE: The name for this program says it all, as it can be used to create small (25 MB) containers within your hard drive where encrypted information can be stored.

File Buddy: Use File Buddy to encrypt your files and erase the original un-encrypted versions from your computer so they won’t be hanging around for prying eyes to find. File Buddy helps you clean your file system of files you no longer need. It uses Droplets to automate tasks you do frequently such as setting file attributes or finding duplicate files.

Posted in Security tools, vulnerability assessment | Tagged: | Leave a Comment »